B
rain tumor is any growth of abnormal cells in the brain or skull. Brain tumors may be benign (stretching and not spreading) or malignant (i.e. cancerous and spreadable), and brain tumors of any kind are dangerous because the brain tumor is not required to grow to a very large size until it begins to put pressure on the rest of the brain and damage it, and infect Brain tumors of both sexes may occur at any age, although second tumors are more common in later stages of life, when the odds of developing any type of cancer increase. There are two categories of brain tumors: primary and secondary tumors. The primary tumors start in the cerebral tissues. Secondary brain tumors are cancers that begin in other organs, the most important of which are the lung or breast, and then spread to the brain. Secondary brain tumors are more common than primary tumors and occur in 25% of people with cancer in other parts of the body.

Generally, brain tumors have many types depending on the type of tissue affected and the cell that will multiply, and it comes anywhere from the cavity of the bones of the skull, such as the side, posterior or anterior cavity. It does not have a definite cause, but it is like all tumors, there are many causes (pollution, radiation or toxins), but it is necessary that there be a factor (genetic) or there is (a gene) that carries characteristics (remain prepared) until exposure to auxiliary factors, but its symptoms are Depends on the place where the tumor presses from the parts of the brain (the brain controls all body systems and entrails). Symptoms start from a persistent vomiting headache, changes in vision and dizziness, and end with paralysis in separate areas of the body.

Any brain tumor is inherently dangerous and can lead to death due to its invasive and infiltrating nature in the limited space in the cavity inside the skull. However, brain tumors (even those that are malignant) are not always fatal, especially a lipoma that is benign in nature. The level of threat depends on a combination of factors such as the type of tumor, its location, size and condition in terms of development. Since the brain is well protected by the skull, early detection of brain tumors occurs only when diagnostic tools are directed toward the intracranial cavity. Detection often occurs in advanced stages when the tumor causes unexplained symptoms, and in most cases the major (real) brain tumors appear in the posterior cranial fossa in children and in the front two-thirds of the cerebral hemispheres in adults.

As for the prevalence of benign brain tumors and primitive and malignant tumors in general, their occurrence will be at the rate of 14 out of 100,000 each year. The most common tumors in adults are benign meningitis and glioma (grade four) and some primary types are rare, and as mentioned above, The cause of most of the primary benign and malignant brain tumors is unknown, and genetic factors may be a dangerous factor in some cases, such as those with fibrous nerve disease and tuberous sclerosis. It is also believed that radiation therapy in the brain may increase the risk of brain tumors, especially meningiomas. Note that there is no strong scientific evidence that the use of mobile phones increases the risk of brain tumors. Some brain tumors arise when a certain type of cell deviates from its usual properties. In such a case, when such a deviation (anomaly) occurs, the cell grows in its new shape, and abnormally multiplies. When these abnormal cells grow, they turn into a lump, or tumor. Brain tumors that arise as a result of a change in shape and an irregularity (anomaly) in growth are called “primary brain tumors”, because the source of their formation is brain tissue.

Primary malignant brain tumors are the primary malignant brain tumors is a cancer that arises from a cell inside the brain that grows and damages normal brain tissue as well as it is like benign tumors that can grow and increase pressure within the skull. However, primary brain tumors, unlike most types of malignant tumors, rarely spread to other parts of the body. There are several types of primary brain tumor as they stem from the diversity of different cells of the brain cells. In general, each type is classified into 4 grades from 1 to 4. The tumors in stage 1 and 2 are considered to be less virulent tumors. As for stage 3 and 4, it is more virulent. The higher the stage, the faster the growth and severity of the tumor. The methods of treatment and diagnosis depend on the type and stage of the tumor. As for secondary malignant brain tumors, it is a secondary malignant brain tumor that means that the cancer that started in part of the body has spread to the brain. There are several types of cancer that can spread to the brain, and the most common ones are breast, lung, colon, kidney, and melanoma. And here are the different types of benign brain tumors, such as meningiomas, usually benign tumors that originate from cells inside the meninges – the tissues that surround the brain. Like pituitary tumors, there are many types of tumors that originate from the different cells in the pituitary gland, which are benign tumors. However, tumor-affected cells can produce large amounts of hormones that cause various symptoms and as they grow they can cause compressive symptoms on the optic nerve – the vision nerve – close to the pituitary gland and affect vision, while the auditory nerve tumor is a benign tumor where it arises from cells that The nerve connected to the ear is covered. Symptoms of this tumor are designed and dizzy on the affected limb.

Metastases in the brain consist of cancer cells that originate in another part of the body. These cancer cells have reached (spread) to the brain from another tumor. This process is called “evolution (metastasis)”. It is known that about 25% of all tumors that arise elsewhere in the body send metastases to the brain, and some brain tumors are detected when they are still small in size, causing epileptic spasms or bleeding. But most of them do not cause symptoms until they grow to a size large enough to put pressure on neighboring brain tissue and cause an imbalance such as weak arms or legs or difficulty speaking. Sometimes the only symptoms of a brain tumor are a headache, caused by increased pressure inside the skull. A headache in someone who has not previously experienced a headache may be a warning sign. In rare cases, undue personality change occurs, which is the first sign of a brain tumor.

A malignant tumor of increasing size raises the pressure inside the closed skull box tightly, resulting in a headache that is not the same as a headache and no analgesic drug is standing before him. Other possible signs of brain tumors include speech problems, visual disturbance, weakness in parts of the body, problems in understanding, nausea or vomiting, problems with balance or walking, numbness or numbness, these symptoms can appear and disappear at first but are more severe in Morning period, as well, coughing, sneezing and bending further aggravate the headache. Sometimes cramping and lethargy increases with the expansion of the tumor, and here we notice that most people with headache and epilepsy do not have a brain tumor. And there are symptoms specific to the location of the tumor in the warehouse. The tumor grows and destroys the brain tissue next door. The functions of the different parts of the body are controlled by different parts of the brain, so the symptoms of the disease vary from case to case according to the affected part of the brain and the size of the affected area so if someone encounters the above symptoms and signs, he should go to the doctor. Your doctor may inquire about the symptoms of brain tumors in detail, as well as the risk factors for brain tumors. In addition to reviewing the medical history, the doctor examines the body to discover signs of brain tumors that may appear.

The doctor needs to take several tests to diagnose the brain tumor permanently, and the tests help to diagnose and classify the types and stages of the brain tumor, so it is important to take the necessary tests and include imaging tests, which help to see the tumor in the brain and determine its stage. Among the most frequently used imaging tests are computerized tomography (CT-Computerized Tomography), which is the most used test during which the head is imaged, and the tumor is seen inside the brain and the size of the tumor, its location, stage, and MRI-Magnetic Resonance Imaging can also be determined. It is a more obvious test than computerized tomography, but it is less used. Then biopsy, during which a sample of the brain tumor is extracted, to extract a sample from the brain tumor. The sample is extracted by special injection, and directed by computerized tomography. The sample extracted from the tumor is examined under a microscope in the laboratory, and the type of tumor, its stage and whether it is cancerous. A biopsy test is the most important and has an important value in determining the appropriate treatment for brain tumor. CSF- Cerebral Spinal Fluid Analysis is a fluid that runs inside the brain and spinal cord, and is extracted by means of a special syringe inserted into the lower back. The cerebrospinal fluid is analyzed in the laboratory under a microscope and its aim is to discover the presence of cells from the tumor in the cerebrospinal fluid, and finally the EEG (Electroencephalogram), which is a brain-based electrocardiogram that helps in the diagnosis of brain attacks and their source. It is worth noting that brain tumors do not go out to the rest of the body, a phenomenon that cannot be explained scientifically.

If brain tumors are not treated, they may lead to permanent brain damage, and there are many types of them that lead to inevitable death, despite the utmost efforts made in treating them. As for the polyps as well as some malignancies, early detection and treatment offer the best chances of recovery. If doctors intend to perform surgery, further brain blood vessels may also be required to further assess the size and location of the tumor. Depending on what your doctor will find, you may be referred to a neurologist, tumor or brain and neurosurgeon. Surgery may be performed with the goal of eradicating some benign or malignant tumors. However, if the surgeon is not able to completely eradicate the tumor due to its attachment to vital parts of the brain, a relapse is a possibility. Even if it is not possible to completely eradicate or treat the tumor, it may sometimes be possible to eradicate a portion of it in order to reduce stress and relieve symptoms. There is “computer assisted surgery” that has worked to improve the ability of surgeons to eradicate deep tumors inside the brain that were previously impossible to access.  

Therapists may also resort to radiotherapy or chemotherapy. The patient may be given cortisone drugs to reduce swelling of the brain tissue, as well as anti-seizure drugs that relieve epileptic seizures associated with nalmormorm. Studies are currently being conducted to find out whether anti-cancer drugs or radioactive cylinders that are placed directly inside the tumor are more effective or not, and if the tumor has spread throughout the body, or if the malignant tumor cannot be cured by surgery and drugs, the efforts are now directed towards Reducing symptoms and providing patient comfort. Radiation therapy depends on gamma rays (x-rays or radioisotopes) usually by focusing on carcinogenic tissue in order to kill cancer cells or limit their spread. Sometimes radiation therapy takes place instead of surgery if there is no option for brain tumor surgery. Sometimes radiation therapy is used in conjunction with surgery, when it is not possible to remove all of the tumor through surgery. There are two types of radiotherapy that are given to brain tumors (malignant and sometimes benign) radiotherapy for all the brain in cases of malignancy to eliminate the rest of the tumor after surgery, and focused radiotherapy (gamma knife, cyperknife) on the area of ​​the (benign or malignant) tumor and this Given small tumors (less than 3 cm), chemical treatment depends on the use of anti-cancer drugs to kill cells or prevent them from spreading. It can be used in conjunction with surgery or radiation therapy, and it depends on various factors such as the type of tumor and its extent.

There are several treatment options aimed at relieving symptoms, avoiding complications, and rehabilitating patients after treatment. The most important possibilities are medications to treat strokes, medications to treat flatulence and high pressure in the skull. , Pain relievers, physiotherapy and occupational therapy, as well as specially designed guidelines and courses for rehabilitating patients to normal. Psychotherapy: It should not be forgotten that brain tumors are frightening situations and patients need psychological support and assistance to successfully navigate this crisis. Complications usually occur if brain tumors are not treated. Several complications may appear as a result of brain tumors, some complications are dangerous and require immediate treatment, others are chronic and lead to continuous damage. The most important complication is Brain Herniation, which is the movement of the brain inside the skull, due to the high intracranial pressure that may be caused by the brain tumor. Cerebral herniation is the most serious complication of brain tumors and requires immediate surgical treatment, otherwise it leads to death, and a loss of part of the brain’s functions: such as loss of senses, ability to speak or absorb speech and others related to the location of the tumor, and degeneration of brain tumors: some tumors may degenerate and reappear until After treatment, chronic and permanent nerve damage leading to muscle weakness, numbness, tingling or permanent loss of sensation in some parts of the body, and Cushing’s Triad is a triad of signs that appear when the pressure inside the skull is exaggerated exaggeratedly. The Cushing Triad includes the following signs: 1 – high blood pressure, 2 – slow heart rate, 3 – irregular breathing.

The expectations for the course of the disease vary depending on the type of brain tumor, whether it is benign or cancerous. The worst type of brain tumor is gliobalstoma, which leads to death within 12 months of being diagnosed despite treatment, while meningioma carries a much better result and is expected to be cured, but the person can live all his life without any health problems.

Print Friendly, PDF & Email